The evolution.

Coffee plant and drink had a very fast diffusion. Already in 1699 we find coffee-plantations in Dutch Colonies, in Indonesian Islands first. Such diffusion happened in India and Dutch Guyana too and proceeded in the Tropical zones which became world's biggest coffeeproducers. In the second half of XVIII Century, cultivation in Tropical countries
was very flourishing and soon it started in Southern America and Asia's Tropical zone too. It was Brazil which shortly reached such a coffeeproduction that it began its exportation. France  and Italy were the countries where coffeehouses were index of a great artistic fervour, even if the first coffee-houses were those in Constantinople where they were in synergy with the world of culture and of fine arts.

The plant

The coffee-plant is a shrub that belongs to about go kinds of coffea's genus, among which the most renowned one is "Coffea Arabica" that gives the best fruits and is the most cultivated one. The plant has a trunk with primary and secondary branches and lightgreen lanceolate oval leaves. The white flowers are concentrated and they rise 
near the armpit of the leaf, several blooms take place in a year. After the bloom, lasting two days, fruits come, at first they are yellowgreen and then, after few months, they ripen until they become shiny-red berries. Two seeds are hidden in the pulp, they are equal, convex at the outside, flat at the inside.

The processing.

Grains' extraction is made by a dry or wet working-process which, in the first case, consists in picking, drying, shattering and cleaning, the grains so obtained are packaged in sacks and exported. The importing countries work coffee with a blending of grains first and then with a roasting of them, after that grains are cooled and then grinded. To be used for the real drink's preparation, grains have to be worked in a process we can synthetize in three phases: blending, roasting and grinding. Implements used for this are several and they have been improving in time, from the
oldest ones to the actual ones which have recourse to the latest technologies.

The drink.

Coffee drink requires a careful preparation, even if we can't say that there are fixed and difficult rules. In times gone by coffee was prepared in this way: it was before grinded then dissolved in cool water and finally boiled in pots, in the cups it was 
poured with no filter, ("Turkish method", still used today). In following times coffee-drink has been prepared in different ways, as the "Venetian way" (making coffee-powder slowly fall in the hot pot) or the "Neapolitan way" (using the famuos coffee-pot, known in the whole world) or, more, using hydropressured coffee-pots or  the actual espresso-machines which make very easy the preparation.